Monday, November 19, 2018

Salmonella and Food

Salmonella and Food

You may know that Salmonella can contaminate poultry and eggs, but it also sneaks its way into many other foods. Learn what you can do to make your food safer to eat.

Salmonella is a bacteria that commonly causes foodborne illness, sometimes called “food poisoning.” CDC estimates Salmonella causes 1 million foodborne illnesses every year in the United States. During the past few years, outbreaks of Salmonella illness have been linked to contaminated cucumbers, chicken, eggs, pistachios, raw tuna, sprouts, and many other foods.



Five Facts That May Surprise You

Don’t let Salmonella make you or your loved ones sick. Learn these five facts – and tips for lowering your chance of getting a Salmonella infection.

Do I have a Salmonella infection?

Contact your doctor or healthcare provider if you have:
Diarrhea and a fever over 101.5°F.
Diarrhea for more than 3 days that is not improving.
Bloody stools.
Prolonged vomiting that prevents you from keeping liquids down.
Signs of dehydration, such as:
Making very little urine.
Dry mouth and throat.
Dizziness when standing up.


You can get a Salmonella infection from 
a variety of foods. Salmonella can be found in many foods including beef, poultry, eggs, fruits, pork, sprouts, vegetables, and even processed foods, such as nuts, frozen pot pies, chicken nuggets, and stuffed chicken entrees. When you eat a food that is contaminated with Salmonella, it can make you sick. Contaminated foods usually look and smell normal, which is why it is important to know how to prevent Salmonella infection.


Salmonella illness is more common in the summer. Warmer weather and unrefrigerated foods create ideal conditions for Salmonella to grow. Be sure to refrigerate or freeze perishables (foods likely to spoil or go bad quickly), prepared foods, and leftovers within 2 hours. Chill them within 1 hour if the temperature is 90°F or hotter.

Salmonella illness can be serious and is more dangerous for certain people. Symptoms of infection usually appear 6–48 hours after eating a contaminated food
but can take much longer. These symptoms include diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps. In most cases, the illness lasts 4–7 days without antibiotic treatment. Some people may have severe diarrhea and need to be hospitalized. Anyone can get a Salmonella infection, but some groups are more likely to develop a serious illness: older adults, children younger than 5, and people with immune systems weakened from medical conditions, such as diabetes, liver or kidney disease, and cancer or their treatment.


Salmonella causes far more illnesses than you might suspect. For every one case of Salmonella illness confirmed by laboratory tests, there are about 30 more cases of Salmonella illnesses that are not Most people who get food poisoning usually do not go to the doctor or submit a sample to a laboratory, so we never learn what germ made them sick.


To avoid Salmonella, you should not eat raw eggs or eggs that have runny whites or yolks. Salmonella can contaminate eggs, even perfectly normal-looking ones. But these eggs can make you sick, especially if they are raw or lightly cooked.
Eggs are safe when you cook and handle them properly.   Check Your Steps

Remember to follow the Clean, Separate, Cook, and Chill guidelines to help keep you and your family safe from food poisoning. Be especially careful to follow the guidelines when preparing food for young children, pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and older adults.

Clean
Wash hands with warm, soapy water for 20 seconds before and after handling uncooked eggs, or raw meat, poultry, and seafood and their juices.

Wash utensils, cutting boards, dishes, and countertops with hot, soapy water after preparing each food item and before you go on to prepare the next item.

Don’t wash raw poultry, meat, and eggs before cooking. Germs can spread to other foods, utensils, and surfaces.

Sanitize food contact surfaces with a freshly made solution of one tablespoon of unscented, liquid chlorine bleach in one gallon of water.


Separate
Keep raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs separate from other foods in your grocery cart and in your refrigerator.

Keep eggs in the original carton and store them in the main part of the refrigerator, not in the door.

Keep raw meat, poultry, and seafood separate from ready-to-eat foods, such as salads and deli meat.

Use separate cutting boards and plates for produce and for raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs.

Never place cooked food on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs.


Cook
Use a food thermometer to ensure that foods are cooked to a safe internal temperature:
145°F for beef, veal, lamb, and fish (let the meat rest for 3 minutes before carving or eating)
145°F for pork and ham (let the meat rest for 3 minutes before carving or eating)
160°F for ground beef, ground pork, ground veal, and ground lamb
160°F for egg dishes
165°F for poultry (chicken, turkey, duck), including ground chicken and ground turkey
165°F for casseroles
Microwave food to 165°F or above.

Chill
Keep your refrigerator at 40°F or colder.
Refrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared foods, and leftovers within 2 hours (or 1 hour if the temperature is 90°F or hotter).

Resource:
Salmonella and Food, CDC




November 19, Carbonated Beverage with Caffeine Day

Though today we look at the caffeine in Carbonated Beverages, this is also an opportunity to view the caffeine in energy drinks that have been cited as the cause of some deaths and is currently being investigated by the US FDA. Some energy drinks contain 2 to 3 times the amount of caffeine found in soda.


How much Caffeine is too much?
Mayo Clinic

Up to 400 milligrams (mg) of caffeine, a day appears to be safe for most healthy adults. That's roughly the amount of caffeine in four cups of brewed coffee, 10 cans of cola or two "energy shot" drinks.
Although caffeine use may be safe for adults, it's not a good idea for children. And adolescents should limit themselves to no more than 100 mg of caffeine a day.

Even among adults, heavy caffeine use can cause unpleasant side effects. And caffeine may not be a good choice for people who are highly sensitive to its effects or who take certain medications.
5-Hour Energy Drinks: FDA Looks Into Caffeinated Beverage

Hidden Dangers of Caffeinated Energy Drinks


Caffeine (mg) based on 12-ounces Soda


National Farm-City Week - Harvesting Healthy Choices



Farm-City Week is celebrated each year.  The purpose of Farm-City Week is to bring about a better understanding between rural and urban people by increasing their knowledge and appreciation of each other as partners in progress.

Farm-City: Harvesting Healthy Choices
Statistics indicated that about one-third of American children ages 6 to 19 are overweight, and a growing number of young people suffer from cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, Type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

Farm-City theme of “Harvesting Healthy Choices” gives farmers an opportunity to join forces with their city neighbors to show the healthy food choices available.


Harvesting Healthy Choices allows the opportunity to talk about the health benefits of locally grown produce and other foods:
- the bone-building power of milk;
- the leaner choices in beef, pork and poultry;
- the importance of folic acid-rich peanuts to expectant mothers;
- the cancer fighting properties of soybeans;
- the antioxidant power of blueberries 

What’s more, modern agriculture produces healthier animals, more nutritious grains and year-round access to fresh fruits and vegetables. Healthy food doesn’t just mean tofu and bean sprouts. A 5-ounce portion of lean beef or pork can be part of a balanced diet, and milk, cheese, bread and even fried catfish still have a place on Alabama’s dinner table. 

Eating well and living well are about choices – and is important to all ages in helping us create a healthier state. For more information on a balanced diet which includes fruits, vegetables, grains, protein and dairy products please visit the Department of Agriculture’s “My Plate” Nutritional Guide at www.choosemyplate.gov.

Resource:





Sunday, November 18, 2018

November 18, National Vichyssoise Day

Vichyssoise is a thick soup made of puréed leeks, onions, potatoes, cream, and a soup stock (usually chicken). It is traditionally served cold but can be eaten hot.




Serves: 5
Ingredients
1 teaspoon canola oil
3 cups diced leek (about 3 large)
3 cups diced peeled baking potato (about 1 1/4 pounds)
1 (16-ounce) can fat-free, low-sodium vegetable (or chicken) broth
2/3 cup half-and-half
1/8 teaspoon black pepper
1 tablespoon minced fresh chives


Directions
1. Heat the canola oil in a large sauce-pan over medium-low heat. 
2. Add the diced leek; cover and cook for 10 minutes or until soft. 
3. Stir in the diced potato and broth, and bring to a boil. 
4. Cover the potato mixture, reduce heat, and simmer for 15 minutes or until the potato is tender. 
5. Place the potato mixture in a blender or food processor, and process until smooth. 
6. Place the potato mixture in a large bowl, and cool to room temperature.
7. Stir in the half-and-half and black pepper.
8. Cover and chill. Sprinkle soup with minced chives.

Nutrition Information




Modified from Cooking Light, September 2000

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Saturday, November 17, 2018

World Prematurity Awareness Day - Nutritional Challenges and Resources

#WorldPrematurityAwarenessDay - Premature birth is the leading cause of death in children under the age of five worldwide.  #MarchofDimes http://bit.ly/2hxitDf



#WorldPrematurityAwarenessDay - Premature Infant - Getting to Know the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) http://wb.md/2zSKnCh  #MarchofDimes #WebMD


#WorldPrematurityAwarenessDay Feeding your baby in the NICU
 - http://bit.ly/2A9VcT6  #MarchofDimes


2018 Premature Birth Report Cards
#WorldPrematurityAwarenessDay   http://bit.ly/2hHhzYM



#WorldPrematurityAwarenessDay How can having a premature baby affect a
family emotionally? http://bit.ly/2AP6R6p #MarchofDimes 



#WorldPrematurityAwarenessDay and Nutrition - Premature Infant -
The First Weeks at Home    http://wb.md/2hHutWD #MarchofDimes



#WorldPrematurityAwarenessDay In honor of babies born too soon and little ones we've lost, please support the March of Dimes’ work to prevent and reduce premature birth. Donations http://bit.ly/2hxitDf


Friday, November 16, 2018

November 16, National Fast Food Day

A look at the Fast Food Industry


Many fast food items are high in Fat, Cholesterol, Saturated Fat and Sodium and are Risk Factors associated with Heart Disease. However,  the informed customer can make healthier choices at fast food restaurants. Below is the nutrition information of some Fast Food Hamburgers. Calories range from 140 for a White Castle Slyder to 1061 calories for a Burger King Cheeseburger, Double Whopper.



In recognition of National Fast Food Day, here is an interview from the Oscar-nominated director of Food, INC., Robert Kenner. Food, INC examines the harmful role of corporate farming and the food industry has on our environment and health.



Healthy Options are the New Fast Food Trend



The Fast Food Burger
Burger Love Handles is a song written by Don MacLeod about

his personal battle with being overweight.
The song focuses 
on fast foods as one
of his difficulties in losing weight.




Pressure Ulcer Awareness - Pressure Injury Prevention Points and Nutrition Intervention

The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) serves as the authoritative voice for improved patient outcomes in pressure injury prevention and treatment through public policy, education and research. The objective of STOP logo 2017 World Wide Pressure Injury Prevention Day is to increase national awareness for pressure injury prevention and to educate the public on this topic. NPUAP has developed an extensive media materials package appropriate for all healthcare settings and organizations.



It is important to identify individuals who are prone to pressure injuries. I have a son with cerebral palsy. He is in a wheelchair and lacks movement without assistance. He receives a body check twice a day, but even with my constant supervision, an ulcer can creep up quickly. I complained to the doctor two weeks ago I was concerned about his feet. Both were swollen and hot. The doctor placed him on antibiotics, but his left foot continued to get worse. On November 14, 2016, I had my son's aide take a photo of the wound and bring it to the doctor. The doctor immediately contacted a wound care nurse and his ankle was diagnosed as a stage II pressure ulcer. He is currently receiving wound care 3 times a week and physical therapy. Be your family and/or friends advocate.

Skin Care
1. Inspect all of the skin upon admission as soon as possible (but within 8 hours).

2.  Inspect the skin at least daily for signs of pressure injury, especially nonblanchable erythema.

3. Assess pressure points, such as the sacrum, coccyx, buttocks, heels, ischium, trochanters, elbows and beneath medical devices.

4.  When inspecting darkly pigmented skin, look for changes in skin tone, skin temperature and tissue consistency compared to adjacent skin. Moistening the skin assists in identifying changes in color.

5. Cleanse the skin promptly after episodes of incontinence.

6. Use skin cleansers that are pH balanced for the skin. 

7. Use skin moisturizers daily on dry skin.

8.  Avoid positioning an individual on an area of erythema or pressure injury.

Nutrition
1.  Consider hospitalized individuals to be at risk for undernutrition and malnutrition from their illness or being NPO for diagnostic testing.

2.  Use a valid and reliable screening tool to determine the risk of malnutrition, such as the Mini Nutritional Assessment.

3.  Refer all individuals at risk for pressure injury from malnutrition to a registered dietitian/nutritionist. 


4. Assist the individual at mealtimes to increase oral intake. 

5.  Encourage all individuals at risk for pressure injury to consume adequate fluids and a balanced diet.

6.  Assess weight changes over time.

7.  Assess the adequacy of oral, enteral and parenteral intake.

8. Provide nutritional supplements between meals and with oral medications, unless contraindicated.


Repositioning and Mobilization
1. Turn and reposition all individuals at risk for pressure injury, unless contraindicated due to medical condition or medical treatments. 


2.  Choose a frequency for turning based on the support surface in use, the tolerance of skin for pressure and the individual’s preferences.

3.  Consider lengthening the turning schedule during the night to allow for uninterrupted sleep.

4.  Turn the individual into a 30-degree side-lying position, and use your hand to determine if the sacrum is off the bed

5.  Avoid positioning the individual on body areas with pressure injury.

6. Ensure that the heels are free from the bed.

7.  Consider the level of immobility, exposure to shear, skin moisture, perfusion, body size and weight of the individual when choosing a support surface.

8. Continue to reposition an individual when placed on any support surface.

9.  Use a breathable incontinence pad when using microclimate management surfaces.

10.  Use a pressure-redistributing chair cushion for individuals sitting in chairs or wheelchairs.

11. Reposition weak or immobile individuals in chairs hourly.

12.  If the individual cannot be moved or is positioned with the head of the bed elevated over 30°, place a polyurethane foam dressing on the sacrum.

13.  Use heel offloading devices or polyurethane foam dressings on individuals at high-risk for heel ulcers

14,  Place thin foam or breathable dressings under medical devices.

Education
1. Teach the individual and family about risk for pressure injury

2.  Engage individual and family in risk reduction interventions



Staging Pressure Injury

A pressure injury is localized damage to the skin and underlying soft tissue usually over a bony prominence or related to a medical or other device. The injury can present as intact skin or an open ulcer and may be painful. The injury occurs as a result of intense and/or prolonged pressure or pressure in combination with shear. The tolerance of soft tissue for pressure and shear may also be affected by microclimate, nutrition, perfusion, co-morbidities and condition of the soft tissue.
Stage 1 Pressure Injury: Non-blanchable erythema of intact skin. Intact skin with a localized area of non-blanchable erythema, which may appear differently in darkly pigmented skin. Presence of blanchable erythema or changes in sensation, temperature, or firmness may precede visual changes. Color changes do not include purple or maroon discoloration; these may indicate deep tissue pressure injury.
Stage 2 Pressure Injury: Partial-thickness skin loss with exposed dermis. Partial-thickness loss of skin with exposed dermis. The wound bed is viable, pink or red, moist, and may also present as an intact or ruptured serum-filled blister. Adipose (fat) is not visible and deeper tissues are not visible. Granulation tissue, slough and eschar are not present. These injuries commonly result from adverse microclimate and shear in the skin over the pelvis and shear in the heel.  This stage should not be used to describe moisture associated skin damage (MASD) including incontinence associated dermatitis (IAD), intertriginous dermatitis (ITD), medical adhesive related skin injury (MARSI), or traumatic wounds (skin tears, burns, abrasions).
Stage 3 Pressure Injury: Full-thickness skin loss. Full-thickness loss of skin, in which adipose (fat) is visible in the ulcer and granulation tissue and epibole (rolled wound edges) are often present. Slough and/or eschar may be visible. The depth of tissue damage varies by anatomical location; areas of significant adiposity can develop deep wounds.  Undermining and tunneling may occur. Fascia, muscle, tendon, ligament, cartilage and/or bone are not exposed. If slough or eschar obscures the extent of tissue loss this is an Unstageable Pressure Injury.
Stage 4 Pressure Injury: Full-thickness skin and tissue loss. Full-thickness skin and tissue loss with exposed or directly palpable fascia, muscle, tendon, ligament, cartilage or bone in the ulcer. Slough and/or eschar may be visible. Epibole (rolled edges), undermining and/or tunneling often occur. Depth varies by anatomical location. If slough or eschar obscures the extent of tissue loss this is an Unstageable Pressure Injury.
Unstageable Pressure Injury: Obscured full-thickness skin and tissue loss. Full-thickness skin and tissue loss in which the extent of tissue damage within the ulcer cannot be confirmed because it is obscured by slough or eschar.  If slough or eschar is removed, a Stage 3 or Stage 4 pressure injury will be revealed. Stable eschar (i.e. dry, adherent, intact without erythema or fluctuance) on the heel or ischemic limb should not be softened or removed.
Deep Tissue Pressure Injury: Persistent non-blanchable deep red, maroon or purple discoloration. Intact or non-intact skin with a localized area of persistent non-blanchable deep red, maroon, purple discoloration or epidermal separation revealing a dark wound bed or blood-filled blister. Pain and temperature change often precede skin color changes. Discoloration may appear differently in darkly pigmented skin.  This injury results from intense and/or prolonged pressure and shear forces at the bone-muscle interface.  The wound may evolve rapidly to reveal the actual extent of tissue injury, or may resolve without tissue loss. If necrotic tissue, subcutaneous tissue, granulation tissue, fascia, muscle or other underlying structures are visible, this indicates a full thickness pressure injury (Unstageable, Stage 3 or Stage 4).



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